Learn briefly about the history of the birth of the machine tool.
Types of machine tools according to the type of industry.
Machine Tool Marketplaces help save time and resources.
The origins of machine tools
The machine tool is a type of machine used to shape solid parts, mainly metals. Their main characteristic is their lack of mobility, as they are usually stationary machines. The final shape of the part is achieved by removing part of the material, which can be done by machining, stamping, cutting or EDM.
The term machine tool is usually reserved for tools those that use a power source other than human motion, but can also be moved by people if properly installed or when no other power source is available. Many historians of technology believe that true machine tools came into being when direct human intervention in the process of shaping or stamping the various types of tools was eliminated. For example, it is considered that the first lathe that can be considered a machine tool was the one invented around 1751 by Jacques de Vaucanson, since it was the first to incorporate the cutting tool in a mechanically adjustable head, taking it out of the hands of the operator.
The machine tools could use human or animal power, originally, then appeared the power obtained through the use of water wheels. However, the real development of machine tools began after the invention of the steam engine, which led to the Industrial Revolution. Today, most of them are powered by electricity.
Hydroelectric power plant in the 90s 19th century
Machine tools can be operated manually or by automatic control. The first machines used handwheels to stabilize their movement and had complex systems of gears and levers to control the machine and the parts it worked on. Numerical control systems were developed shortly after World War II. Numerically controlled machines used a series of numbers punched on a paper tape or punched cards to control their motion. In the 1960s, computers were added to increase the flexibility of the process. Such machines began to be called CNC machines, or Computer Numerical Controlled machines. CNC and numerical control machines can repeat sequences over and over again with precision, and can produce much more complex parts than even the most experienced operator can.
Types of machine tools
When thinking about buying a machine tool, we must take into account the types that exist and which ones are the most suitable according to our type of industry. According to the way they work, machine tools can be classified into three types:
- Roughing or roughing machines, which shape the part by chip removal.
- Presses, which shape parts by cutting, pressing or drawing.
- Special, which shape the part using different techniques, such as laser, EDM, ultrasound, plasma, etc.
Depending on the machining process we want to perform, we can classify machine tools into conventional and non-conventional.
The most commonly used conventional basic machine tools in all types of industries are:
- Lathes one of the oldest machines that works by removing material and a cutting tool. For this purpose, the part rotates a carriage on which the tools are placed approaching the part, causing it to wear to obtain cylindrical or conical parts. If a drill bit is placed in the corresponding position, holes can be drilled. There are several types of lathes: the parallelswhich are the conventionalthose of numerical controlor CNC, which are controlled by an electronic system. programmablethose of camsThe control is carried out by means of cams (these are also called bar turning); and the revolver latheswhich have a rotating turretthe revolver, in which they are located.
Lathe JAP MLS
- Drills: These machine tools are, together with the lathes, the oldest ones. In these machines, the work is carried out by turning the tool and the workpiece remains fixed by means of a press. The work normally performed in drills is done by a drill bit that makes the corresponding hole. Other operations can also be performed with different tools, such as countersinking and reaming. A special type of drilling machine is the pointing machine that works with small grinding wheels or other material. They are used for high precision operations and their rotational speeds are usually very high.
- Milling machines with the purpose of obtaining smooth surfaces milling machines are complex machines in which it is the tool that rotates and the workpiece that remains fixed to a moving bed. The tool used is the milling cutter, which is usually round with different cutting edges whose shape coincides with the shape to be given to the piece to be worked. The workpiece is solidly fixed to a carriage that brings it close to the milling cutter in the three directions, i.e. in the X, Y and Z axes. With different tools and other accessories or tools such as the divider, a multitude of different jobs and shapes can be made.
- Grinding machines: The grinding machine works with an abrasive disc that removes the material from the workpiece. It is often used for precision finishing because of the possibility of very precise abrasion control.
- Presses which produce the final parts by a plastic deformation process that may (or may not) involve subsequent cutting to remove excess material. They are all those machines that by applying pressure on a cold material deform it beyond its elastic limit, resulting in a new shape.
Some of the non-conventional machine tools, most commonly used in industries specialized in the production of more sophisticated parts , are:
- Electrical discharge machining: The EDM machines abrade the material by means of electrical sparks that melttiny partsof the material. There are two types of EDM machines: the electrodesThe electrodes, which make holes in the shape of the electrode or surface wear with the reverse shape of the electrode, make recordings; and the of yarn that, through the use of a thread driver sparks fly from the sparks that wear down the material, cutting the pieces as needed. In both cases, both the tool and the part are immersed in a non-conductive liquid during the entire process.
- Plasma ARC: Plasma ARC, a jet of gas at high temperature and pressure is used to cut the material.
- Laser: In this case it is a powerful and precise laser beamthat performs the cutting by vaporizing the material to be removed.
MAKINAK, the Marketplace for machine tools
Marketplaces are a very widespread and well-known tool among all Internet users. Thanks to machine tool marketplaces like MAKINAK, we save time when buying MAKINAK we save time when purchasing any kind of product. The The industrial sector could not be less, as more and more professionals in the food industry are becoming increasingly company purchases that use this type of portals, because they have seen the profitability that they are offered, not only because of the low prices that they offer, but also because, among many other advantages, they have become one of the most important effective tool with which optimize internal resources by spending less time purchasing machine tools.
Another of the advantages most appreciated by MAKINAK users is the ease of finding the exact machine, tool, accessory or industrial sector service they need thanks to its Smart Finder categorization. By applying a series of advanced filters they can find the machine that best suits their needs.
Advanced search filters panel in MANIKAK
In addition MAKINAK solves long waits on deliveries of industrial machine tools newin stock or of second handThis is one of the major problems most often encountered by industry professionals, because by having their own technical team, they can guarantee the condition of the products, ensure their condition and carry out the shipping logistics with the highest quality standards. immediate delivery in a maximum of four weeks.
And, of course, it offers its customers the opportunity to finance their purchases (subject to approval by the financial institution) because they understand that the acquisition of machine tools for a business is a very important economic effort.
In short, specialized machine tool marketplaces, such as MAKINAK, offer their customers the widest product portfolio whatever the type of industry, guaranteeing quality and reliability, with immediate delivery, various payment methods and financing. All these advantages undoubtedly make them a good choice when buying machinery, tools and accessories or contracting other types of services related to industrial environments, such as technical service, automation, commissioning, training… among others.